He was the brother-in-law of Brutus, another leader of the conspiracy. Pictures. A second Parthian invasion of Syria by Pacorus I resulted in the latter's death and Parthian failure. Gaius Cassius Longinus, often referred to as simply Cassius, was a Roman senator and general best known as a leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 BC. A Historical Mystery A Military Campaign General History Revolution! Quintus Labienus Parthicus was a Roman general in the Late Republic period. , Six of these legions had already been sent to Macedonia to train, along with a large sum of gold for the expedition. The cavalry of the Gauls were an elite part of their war-band and played a crucial role during Vercingetorix' campaign against Caesar. Forums Login. At his death in 44 BC, Julius Caesar had been days away from leaving Rome to embark on a major military operation—the invasion of Parthia. After the defeat of the Parthian-backed Pompeians in the Liberators' civil war by Mark Antony and Octavian, Orodes II sent a Parthian force under Prince Pacorus I and the Pompeian general Quintus Labienus in 40 BC to invade the eastern Roman territories while Antony was in Egypt. These coins were often struck carelessly and are normally encountered with peripheral weakness, perhaps evidence of the mint's haste to complete its task. Let’s talk about Antony’s Parthian campaign. One of the four consular legions, recruited by Caesar when he was consul in 48. Home. He was the first king who successfully unified the tribes of the Dacian Kingdom, which comprised the area located between the Danube, Tisza, and Dniester rivers and modern day Romania.   [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Here the ancient sources diverge. Saved. From the 4th century to the middle of the 2nd century BC the Dacian peoples were influenced by La Tène Celts who brought new technologies with them into Dacia. In 55 and 54 BC, he invaded Britain, although he made little headway. Jealous of Caesar’s and Pompey’s military successes, the rich businessman-turned-general Crassus sought glory to the east by attacking the Parthian kingdom in Persia — only to meet ignominious defeat and death at Carrhae in 53 BC. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. Forums. Caesar pressed Pompey to renew them, but Pompey held off, preserving his freedom of action. This was followed by the civil war, during which time Caesar chased his rivals to Greece, decisively defeating them there. He occupied the Roman province of Syria together with the Parthians in 40 BC. Crassus' payoff was to take the campaign against the Parthians who were raiding the Roman province of Syria. A number of motivations have been proposed to explain his decision to continue his military career. Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, had planned an invasion of the Parthian Empire which was to begin in 44 BC; however, due to his assassination that same year, the invasion never took place. The Parthian army had success at first, but when a real commander and army showed up (Ventidius with a few legions) It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death.  The relationship between the planned Parthian war and his death, if any, is unknown. Following the First Punic War, naval battles were less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome due to its encompassment of lands of the periphery and its unchallenged dominance of the Mediterranean Sea. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC.   Caesar intended to leave Rome to start the campaign on 18 March; however, three days prior to his departure he was assassinated. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. Bust of Julius Caesa in Naples’ National Archaeological Museum. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae.Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into the Parthian territory. Site Where Julius Caesar Was Stabbed Will Finally Open to the Public . The Parthian war of Caracalla was an unsuccessful campaign by the Roman Empire under Caracalla against the Parthian Empire in 216–17 AD. , In order to support a royal title for Caesar a rumor was spread in the lead up to the planned invasion.  Plutarch, however, describes a bolder campaign. Although he was born to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, Augustus' only daughter, Gaius and his younger brother, Lucius Caesar, were raised by their grandfather as his adopted sons and joint-heirs to the empire. It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death. Dacians often warred with neighbouring tribes, but the relative isolation of the Dacian peoples in the Carpathian Mountains allowed them to survive and even to thrive. The Roman–Parthian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. , The expedition was planned to take three years. As a preliminary, he planned to first invade and conquer the kingdom of Dacia, roughly modern Romania, which he calculated could be accomplished by the end of 44 BC. And Parthia was not invulnerable to a Roman army led by a commander of genius. Menu Julius Caesar invades Parthia. At an assembly in Ctesiphon, Trajan was hailed imperator by the legions. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or praetorship, offices that ordinary senators were required to hold as part of the cursus honorum. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian Empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history. His forces carried out a campaign of massacres in the northern regions of the Parthian Empire before withdrawing to Asia Minor, where he was assassinated in April 217.  It was to begin with a punitive attack on Dacia under King Burebista, who had been threatening Macedonia's northern border.  He used Caesar's proposed invasion plan, of attacking through Armenia, where it was felt the support of the local king could be relied on. One of the reason the conspirators killed Caesar before his Parthian campaign is the fact that they knew that if he accomplished even half of what he said he would do, and returned laden with the unimaginable wealth of the east, then the people of Rome would have made him king without any hesitation. Gaining Mesopotamia would give Crassus … At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. Military campaign that Gaius Julius Caesar never executed, Caesar's invasion plan used more cavalry than, From 46 BC Quintus Caecilius Bassus had control of. After he learned about his adoption, Octavian decided to move towards Brindisi where he arrived in April.  However, some of the aspects of Caesar's planned kingship may have been invented after the assassination in order to justify the act. Caesar Ascending-Conquest of Parthia, is the second volume of the alternate history series in which Caesar survives the assassination attempt in March of 44 BC and carries out his planned invasion of Parthia. These wars were critically important in the transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Pompey's success as a general while still young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal cursus honorum.  As Caesar planned to be away for some time he reordered the senate  and also insured that all magistrates, consuls, and tribunes would be appointed by him during his absence. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, known by the anglicisation Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman general and statesman, whose career was significant in Rome's transformation from a republic to empire. The main Parthian force took charge of Syria and invaded Judea. , Some academics have theorized that Caesar's pairing with Alexander and Trajan's invasion of Parthia, near the time of Plutarch's writing, led to exaggerations in the presented invasion plan. Crassus hoped to gain fame by conquering farther east than any previous Roman. He won key victories against the Parthians which resulted in the deaths of key leaders – victories which redeemed the losses of Crassus and paved the way for Antony's incursions. Parthian Wars AAR: Caesar's Revenge.  From 40 to 33 BC Rome and Antony in particular would wage an unsuccessful war with Parthia. Forget Gaul. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. Antony himself sailed to Greece with his massive fleet, then proceeded overland to Athens. Following a similar line of thought in June of that year Caesar temporarily wavered in his intention to leave with the expedition. Parthia was aware of the political divide in Rome and that Caesar's victory in the civil war may lead to invasion.  Although he implies that Caesar's goal was an expansion of the empire, not just its stabilization. Publius Licinius Crassus was one of two sons of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the so-called "triumvir", and Tertulla, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus. History Themes. In the summer of 44, it served under Marc Antony and was defeated at … Rise of Empire Your Favorite General. He then pushed into southern Anatolia, still with Parthian support. to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. in preparation for his aborted Parthian campaign. He then went to Egypt, where he defeated the Egyptian pharaoh and put Cleopatra on the throne. Audiobooks. The Roman forces taunted the Persians, accusing them of cowardice, effeminacy, and telling them that they had sexual relations with their mothers. He received greetings from veterans with extraordinary tactics and prudence. Ancient Rome Ancient Greece Ancient History Ancient Aliens Gaius Julius Caesar Parthian Empire Royal Shakespeare Company Roman History Roman Empire. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Phil…  , After Caesar's death Mark Antony successfully vied for control of the legions from the planned invasion, still stationed in Macedonia and he temporarily took control of that province in order to do so. Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.  Buszard's reading of Parallel Lives also interprets Plutarch as trying to use Caesar's future plans as a case study in the error of unbridled ambition. Crassus’ Parthian campaign ended in disaster and in Crassus’ death (53). Suetonius states that Caesar wished to proceed cautiously and would not fully engage the Parthian army unless he could first determine their full strength. The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony and Octavian, Caesar's former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony. The Death of Marcus Licinius Crassus by Lancelot Blondeel, (circa 1548 - 1558) Musea Brugge – Groeningemuseum ( Public Domain ) As predicted, Crassus met his end at the battle of Carrhae 53 BC as the Parthian forces soundly defeated the Romans. Resources. By the 1st century BC the Dacians had become the dominant tribe. In 41 BCE, the Parthians invaded Roman territory with heavily armored cavalry - more like Knights or Cataphracts. It is not inconceivable that Caesar could have accomplished the same in the 40s BC. HOW TO LISTEN If you're seeing this message, it means you aren't logged in as a subscriber. Marc Antony's own attempted invasion ended before it had even begun: he was betrayed early on in the campaign by the King of Armenia, who turned his supply train, containing all the materials Antony needed to construct siege weapons to take the Parthian cities, over to the Parthians, forcing Antony to beat a hasty retreat. Following in Alexander’s footsteps was the key to glory. References to the Parthian campaign are found on denarii struck by Publius Licinius Crassus, moneyer of c. 55 B.C., and son of Marcus Licinius Crassus. He needed massive funds to achieve Caesar’s wishes, and he demanded 700 million sesterces as the proportion of the funds set aside by Caesar for his Parthian Campaign.  Caesar may have also wished to heal the rift from the civil war, or distract from it, by reminding the populace of Rome of the threat of a neighboring empire. These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and also by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire. In AD 66, Nero was marshaling his forces for an invasion of… Sign In Join. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. After he learned about his adoption, Octavian decided to move towards Brindisi where he arrived in April. By 52 Pompey and Caesar stood face to face, still nominally friends but with no personal link between them and no common interests.  [lower-alpha 5], As Rome in 45 BC was still politically divided after the civil war, Marcus Cicero tried to lobby Caesar to postpone the Parthian invasion and solve his domestic problems instead. His adversaries also gave him the nickname adulescentulus carnifex for his ruthlessness. Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into Parthian territory. To many Romans this required revenge. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android.  However, Caesar finally decided to leave Rome and join the army in Macedonia. Crassus knew he could not beat Caesar’s popularity with his wealth alone. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, who died at the battle.  Plutarch also states that the construction of a canal through the isthmus of Corinth, for which Anienus had been placed in charge, was to occur during the campaign. Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from a constitutional republic into the autocratic Roman Empire. His assassination prevented it – Gareth argued how senatorial fears that Caesar would be successful in this planned eastern expedition factored heavily in his murder. These coins were most likely struck in the fund-raising efforts preparing for the war on Parthia. [lower-alpha 4] Also Parthia had taken Pompey's side in the recent civil war against Caesar. Velleius Paterculus – History of Rome (first century A.D.) Paterculus was a Roman historian who wrote a short Roman history in two books, circa AD 30, which made mention of the Carrhae campaign. It seems that Trajan and the bulk of his army spent the winter of AD 115–116 there at Ctesiphon, with Trajan occupying the palace of the kings of Parthia. Magazines. Thread starter Mrbsct; Start date May 3, 2015; Tags caesar invades julius parthia; Home. He received greetings from veterans with extraordinary tactics and prudence. Let’s talk some more about Antony’s Parthian campaign. Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC. The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. Read Life of Augustus Caesar #28 – Parthia Pt 2 by with a free trial. , After Dacia the army was then to invade Parthia from Armenia. However, he would never get the opportunity to try: three days before he was to leave Rome for the Parthian campaign, Caesar was assassinated by Roman senators. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC.   It has been suggested by Christopher Pelling that Dacia was going to be the expedition's main target, not Parthia. It fought on the side of the triumvirs during the battle of Philippi (42) and its veterans were settled in Macedonia. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. Following an unprecedented and highly successful campaign in Gaul, Caesar became hugely popular with the Roman people. Parthia was no pushover, as evinced by the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, where a Parthian cavalry force of 10,000 had all but annihilated a much larger Roman army of roughly 50,000, led by Caesar’s fellow Triumvir, Crassus.  It ended in failure and his death at the Battle of Carrhae.  [lower-alpha 3], Plutarch's Parallel Lives was written with the intention of finding correlations between the lives of famous Romans and Greeks;  for example, Caesar was paired with Alexander the Great. Sheet Music. This victory at Carrhae placed Parthia on an equal, if not superior footing with Rome, at least for a brief moment in history. After receiving Babylonia in 321 BC, Seleucus expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories, establishing a dynasty that would rule for over two centuries. Roman retreat-Romans defeat Parthian on battlefield, but cannot take cities,causing retreat Votes: 1 1 A century and a half later, the emperor Trajan did exactly what Caesar had planned, conquering Dacia, then successfully invading and defeating Parthia, seizing its capital city of Ctesiphon, annexing Mesopotamia, and dictating a highly favorable peace treaty. Battles between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic began in …  It has also been proposed that Caesar's opposition would be fearful of him returning victorious from his campaign and more popular than ever. Sometime in the 2nd century BC the Dacians expelled the Celts from their lands. Caesar in his commentary on the Second Civil War has the following brief mention: ... Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. Forget Spain. At its height, the empire spanned Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan. PC : AGEOD's series of Grand strategy games set during the Roman empire. Podcasts. In 53 BCE against Crassus, the Parthians trotted out horse archers and annihilated the Romans. Search. Caesar realistically would lead a successful campaign in Parthia until matter’s at home got so drastic he had to return. Over the next 150 years, several emperors seized on the idea of realizing Caesar’s dream of conquering Parthia. Plutarch also recorded that once Parthia was s  It has also been proposed that Caesar knew of the threats against him and felt that leaving Rome and being in the company of a loyal army would be safer, personally and politically. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the He belonged to the last generation of Roman nobiles who came of age and began a political career before the collapse of the Republic. He needed to win his own glory and gain new riches from a distant land; he had to go back to war. The Gallic War mainly took place in what is now France. Bestsellers. In a meeting of the Triumvirs Crassus was able to secure the governorship of Syria, a very wealthy area that bordered the Parthian empire. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. He is often called "the richest man in Rome". "Plutarch's Comparison of Pericles and Fabius Maximus", "Caesar's Projected Dacian-Parthian Expedition", "Caesars Partherkrieg (English title: Caesar's Parthian War)", Eventual cancellation and diversion of Roman forces among civil war parties, Unknown number of auxiliary cavalry and light infantry. Left to right- Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey. After intervening to overthrow rulers in client kingdoms adjoining Parthia, he invaded in 216 using an abortive wedding proposal to the Parthian king's daughter as a casus belli. The curia in …  These grander plans are found only in Plutarch's Parallel Lives , and their authenticity is questioned by most scholars. A member of the senatorial nobility, Pompey entered a military career while still young and rose to prominence serving the later dictator Sulla as a commander in Sulla's civil war, his success at which earned him the cognomen Magnus – "the Great" – after Pompey's boyhood hero Alexander the Great.  After a victorious campaign he would have, as Plutarch wrote, "completed this circuit of his empire, which would then be bounded on all sides by the ocean"  and return home with his lifelong dictatorship secured. From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was closely entwined with its military history. Julius Caesar invades Pathia Decisive Roman victory-Parthia … History of Iran: Parthian Empire By: Jona Lendering The Parthian empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. With this in mind Caesar planned a great Parthian campaign in c.45 BC, the pretext being to avenge the Roman demise at Carrhae. After his assassination, the Second Triumvirate, composed of Marcus Antonius (Antony), Marcus Lepidus and Gaius Octavianus (later known as Augustus). Caesar sent the cavalry and auxiliaries under Domitius Calvinus to harry the Parthian forces for several days. According to Plutarch in his "Life of Antony", the three military victories of Ventidius over the Parthians singularly resulted in the only award to a Roman general of the triumphal ceremony for victory over Parthians. Julius Caesar's planned invasion of the Parthian Empire was to begin in 44 BC; however, due to his assassination that same year, the invasion never took place. Books. The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. And so this leads us directly to his famed Parthian campaign. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. together they kept some semblance of stability in an increasingly unstable Republic. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. The following spring, he would move on to Parthia. In 38 BC, Mark Antony invaded Parthia with an even larger force than that which Caesar had planned to use, numbering over 100,000 legionaries, 24,000 auxiliaries, and 10,000 cavalry, only to meet with disaster. The Roman–Parthian Wars (54 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Ancient Rome.  The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. The son of Titus Labienus, he made an alliance with Parthia and invaded the Roman provinces in the eastern Mediterranean which were under the control of Mark Antony. Once his campaigns were over, he served as Roman dictator until his assassination on March 15, 44 BC. While he was losing up to 30,000 irreplaceable men and a foreign war, Octavian was consolidating his hold over the Western empire and the hearts of his fellow Romans. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. The Parthian campaign was the turning point in Antony’s fortunes. Antony's Parthian War was a military campaign by Mark Antony, the eastern triumvir of the Roman Republic, against the Parthian Empire under Phraates IV. Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into the Parthian territory.   Malitz, while acknowledging that the Scythia and Germania plans appear unrealistic, believes they were credible given the geographic knowledge of the time. He then finished off his Roman opponents in Africa and Hispania. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (171-138 BCE). Caesar, Pompey and Crassus formed a triumvirate to put an end to political strife. Register. It was the climax of a four-year period, starting in 213, when Caracalla pursued a lengthy campaign in central and eastern Europe and the Near East. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian Empire established by Alexander the Great. Publius Ventidius Bassus was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Defeat of Rome in the East: Crassus, the Parthians, and the Disastrous Battle of Carrhae, 53 BC at Amazon.com. Its Parthian defenders put up some resistance, but the legions soon captured it, and, apparently, also captured neighboring Seleucia. Upload. After his assassination, the Second Triumvirate, composed of Marcus Antonius (Antony), Marcus Lepidus and Gaius Octavianus (later known as Augustus), was formed. Then Caesar brought the main body of the legions out to fight the Parthians. . In 39 BC, Antony sent Ventidius, who defeated and executed Labienus in a counter-attack, and then drove Pacorus I out of the Levant. Speculative History.  The deployment of the army to Macedonia near the Dacian frontier and the lack of military preparation in Syria have also been used to lend support for this hypothesis. He was consul three times and celebrated three Roman triumphs.  By 44 BC Caesar had begun a mass mobilization, sixteen legions (c.60,000 men) and ten thousand cavalry were being gathered for the invasion. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 B.C. Using this fund to raise an army against the Senate’s enemy Mark Antony, Octavian found large support within the senate and Caesar’s veteran legionaries. From there, Trajan sent … , There is evidence that Caesar had begun practical preparation for the campaign some time before late 45 BC. Both Labienus and the Parthians were defeated by Publius Ventidius Bassus, who recovered these provinces for Mark Antony. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. The military campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War and Caesar's civil war.   As Caesar's greatest internal opposition came from those that believed he wanted royal power, this strengthened the conspiracy against him. David Vagi states the horse on the reverse is presumably a reference to the 1,000 Gallic horsemen Publius brought to the campaign, or perhaps to … It is likely that his six legions were sent to a base Caesar had created in Macedonia in 45-44 B.C. Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure.  Octavius was sent to Apollonia (within modern Albania), ostensibly as a student, to remain in contact with the army. According to the poet Ovid in Book 6 of his poem Fasti, the battle occurred on the 9th day of June. It alleged that it had been prophesied that only a Roman king could defeat Parthia. XXXVIII Legions that Caesar constituted in 45 to substitute the veteran legions that were pensioned off. Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. The Gallic War ended with complete Roman victory at the Battle of Alesia. Snapshots. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC it became home to the Thracian peoples, including the Getae and the Dacians. His peers included Marcus Antonius, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, the poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, and the historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus. According to Dio, the Roman people's desire for this revenge led to Caesar being given sole command of the Parthian campaign by a unanimous vote.   These would be supported by auxiliary cavalry and light armed infantry. The campaign was certainly publicly cast as a response to Crassus' bumbling campaign at Carrhae, but the explanations that different sources give for Caesar's personal motive are all different.